Major Assignment 2

Welcome To My Major Assignment 2 Page

Major Assignment 2

After meeting with Professor Murdock I had a much greater understanding for this major assignment. I chose a discourse community to focus on, along with help from Professor Murdock.

Abigail Parker

Professor murdock

English 1001

12 Nov. 2020


How does the writing and genres in Green Township Fire Department show their values? What got me interested in finding out about this discourse community, the fire department is that I have been growing up around this atmosphere my entire life. With my dad being a full-time firemen, and now my brother being a part-time firemen I was really intrigued with learning more about the different genres they use on a daily basis. 


While I was researching to find the different genres the fire department uses, I thought I would find more information about discourse communities. The first article I found was Discourse Community by Erik Borg, he states, “Unlike a speech community, membership of a discourse community is usually a matter of choice; unlike an interpretive community, members of a discourse community actively share goals and communicate with other members to pursue those goals”(398).  I felt like this went along with the Green Township Fire Department because a person chooses to belong to that community, and they actively share goals and passions between each other. This shows the strong values each firefighter has, since they are willing to belong to their discourse community, the fire department. As you start reading this essay, I interviewed two employees from the Green Township Fire Department. They listed that they receive the goals for the day from the lieutenant that is working on that specific day. That is just one characteristic that shows that this is in fact a discourse community. 

 Different discourse communities use different genres that cater to their needs and to spread their knowledge to other members. For example, different religion groups might have prayer, a bible or text to worship, a newsletter to give information out to the public, etc. John Swales states in The Concept of Discourse Community, “Swales demonstrates the discourse communities all use genres, many of which are recognizable to people outside the group (for example, memos or reports), but he notes that groups develop their own conventions for those genres in light of their desired goals” (216). That quote just demonstrates that every discourse community uses their own type of genres. I first looked at all of the qualifications a person needs to be a EMS in the state of Ohio. There was a list of all the different requirements, some of them were, “Changing a Air Cylinder, Fireground Communication, Two Firefighter Ladder Carry and Raise, Responding on Apparatus, Exiting a Hazardous Area, etc.” I found that information on website. This shows that to even be a EMS in the state of Ohio, you need numerous requirements. That list is an example of all the different genres there are. After I looked at the website I then looked at the Green Township Fire Department qualifications. I found a PDF from when they were hiring last in 2018, the listed requirements were, “The following minimum requirements must be met for eligibility: at least 18 years of age, current CPAT (Candidate Physical Ability Testing) Certificate at the time of the interview, have at least two years of Fire or EMS service experience working in an emergent 911 dispatch agency, Ohio certified firefighter 1, Ohio certified paramedic, possess a high school diploma or GED certificate, possess a valid, unrestricted Ohio driver’s license (or eligible to obtain within 30 of employment).” Those are just the minimum requirements to be hired at the Green Township Fire Department for a full time position. This shows all of the background genre requirements that need to be met. 

Primary sources

I came up with a set of questions to ask a part-time and a full time fireman at Green Township. I wanted to see how their answers could differ from each other. I chose a part time and a full time since the full time fireman would have more experience. 

Source one:

Questions to ask part time fireman at Green Township:

  1. How long was the schooling to become a fireman?
  2. How long is the schooling for paramedic, to become full time?
  3. Are there specific documents you have to look back at when you are  on a run?
  4. Being part time are there documents you are not allowed to complete?
  5. Can you give examples of some higher up positions in the fire department?
  6. Do these higher up positions have meetings on a regular basis? If not, how do they give out information to you?

I asked these questions to Tim Keeton, he is a part time fireman at Green Township. He is currently in paramedic school, to hopefully become a full time firefighter at Green Township.

  1. School to become a firefighter depends on which academy you go to. Different programs vary in length. Regardless of what program you’re in, a firefighter 1 and 2 certification is required as well as EMT- B to work as a career firefighter in the Cincinnati area. I attended Scarlet Oaks fire school. That program consisted of 10 weeks of fire training and testing as well as 8 to 9 weeks of EMT training. Since I was already an EMT from my job in the Army, I only had to take the fire portion. 
  2. The length of paramedic school again depends on the program you are in. I am currently in the Cincinnati Fire Department’s program, which is about 10 months long. Other schools in this area, such as Colerain’s or Cincinnati State’s school are around 18 months long. Class with the Cincinnati Fire Department takes place every 3 days for 10 hours a day on top of 100’s of hours of ER rotations and ride time in order to graduate. 
  3. There are various documents that are referenced during a run as a paramedic. Each ambulance contains a Southwest Ohio protocol book. This protocol book contains specific guidelines on how to treat various types of patients and is used very often. Other frequently used documents include medication guidelines, correct dosage and drip rate reference sheets,a dn the Cincinnati stroke scale. All of these are very important and are often used by the medic crews around the city.  
  4. There are various documents that can’t be completed by a part-time firefighter/EMT, the most common being the run report for any incident that required paramedic level skills (I.E giving and IV). Those run reports must be completed by a paramedic. There are also numerous of other documents that are only able to be filled out by the officer of the crew(lieutenant), the district chief, or other command level officers.
  5. The rank structure of the department is:
  • Fire Chief
  • Assistant chief
  • (EMS chief, training captain, Fire marshal, these positions are not in direct command)
  • District chief, one district chief is in charge of everyone on a unit day
  • Lieutenant, in charge of the engine company and medic crew of an individual firehouse
  • Firefighter/ paramedic
  • Firefighter/ EMS
  1. The command structure allows meetings to happen every morning between upper command and the lieutenants at every station, usually through a conference call or zoom. In turn, the lieutenant is informed of all activities that take place or have to be accomplished that day, and is able to brief his or her crew on what is going on for that day. Usual tasks include training, fire inspections, PR events, various maintenance and admin duties, and allowing ride alongs for paramedic students. 

Source two:

Questions to ask full time fireman at Green Township:

  1. How long was the school to become a fireman, and a paramedic?
  2. When being a paramedic, is there a document to look back at when giving a person medicine?
  3. Is there a procedure you have to take when you are documenting a person’s situation?
  4. Can you give examples of higher up co-worker?
  5. How do these high up co-worker give information out to you? (example; newsletters, meetings, emails, ect.)
  6. When going on a run, do you have to get specific directions from a higher up worker, or can you take that responsibility?

I asked these questions to Andy Parker, he has been a full time firefighter at Green Township for 23 years. 

  1. The combined school to become a paramedic and a firefighter is about 2 years long.
  2. While giving medication to a civilian we use the Hamilton County Paramedic Parodical sheet, this could vary depending out the different counties your fire station is at. 
  3. With every patient we come in contact with we have to generate a Patient Care Report for them. This follows the state of Ohio guidelines when making a run. 
  4. The ranks from top to bottom are: Chief, Assistant Chief, District Chief, Lieutenant, Full time Firefighter/ Paramedic, and then Part time Firefighter/ Paramedic or EMT. 
  5. The higher up coworkers will either use emails, phone calls, or in person meetings to give out the information they need for that day. 
  6. When riding in charge of the medic unit I am the one making the decisions. The Fire Lieutenant makes the decisions on fire runs. However, most of the time it is a collective decision. Where as there can be input from everyone involved in the particular run on that day. 


I have come to the conclusion that the discourse community containing firefighters and paramedics, is thorough with their genres. I have also seen how much work and schooling it takes to become a member of this discourse community. This being said I think it is safe to say that firefighters have great pride in their community (outside of their discourse community) and their job. 


Parker, Andy. Interview on Nov.  2020

Keeton, Tim. Interview on Nov. 13 2020

Borg, Erik: Discourse Community 

Swales, John: The Concepts of Discourse Community 

Ohio Emergency Services: 

Green Township Fire and EMS, Scott Souders Fire and EMS Chief: 

For my first draft of major assignment two, I did not really know the direction I should have gone in. My topic didn’t make sense for the assignment requirements. 

Abigail Parker

Professor murdock

English 1001

8 oct. 2020

Do you know the process an author goes through when it comes to writing? Many people might not think about the actual process it takes an author. I was surprised myself when I found out it was much more complex than what I have always thought. To be a successful author you must go through stages in the writing process, choose a topic to focus on, and endorse the heartaches that will come along. 

An author will go through different stages when it comes to writing, and writing about a certain topic. The steps will follow; prewriting, drafting, revising, and then finally editing. Alspo when an author is first starting off their writing, they have to find their genre, who their audience is, and what the rhetorical situation is. This will allow them to have their plot to the story or meaning behind their piece. I feel like the rhetorical situation might be the biggest part when it comes to writing, solely for the purpose of this being the lesson the audience learns. When writing a lesson is important, since it caters to a certain audience and sometimes a certain genre.  Bizter states, “Let us regard rhetorical situation as a natural context of persons, events, objects, relations, and exigence which strongly invites utterance; this invited utterance participates naturally in the situation, is in many instances necessary to the compilation of situational activity…”(Bitzer 5). As you can see the rhetorical situations is important since it is the lesson, and the plot. It gives the writing a setting. 

When an author doesn’t know exactly what to write about, they might take steps to find one easily. Sometimes reading could help an author find a topic to write about. If someone finds something that is interesting to them while reading, it could spark a topic for them to write about. According to the Quora Contributor, “Read with the intent to learn and to stimulate your creative brain. Mark up the books, circle interesting things, talk out loud. This is not relaxing reading: You want to reread paragraphs 12 times because you were day-dreaming. Let your brain meander.” This could indicate to an author that if they read and reread something that interests them, it could spark something to their mind, and give them a topic to write about. 

When being an author and becoming a successful author, there can be a lot of self doubt. People will criticise everything you compose, or maybe your editor will send back your work 100 times. It can feel very easy, to just give up. Business insider did an interview with Stephen King, a very successful author. Business insider states, “King compares writing fiction to crossing the Atlantic Ocean in a bathtub, because in both, “there’s plenty of opportunity for self-doubt.” Not only will you doubt yourself, but other people will doubt you, too. “If you write (or paint or dance or sculpt or sing, I suppose), someone will try to make you feel lousy about it, that’s all,” writes King.” As you can see, the road to becoming successful will be hard and long. Business insider also states, “Oftentimes, you have to continue writing even when you don’t feel like it. “Stopping a piece of work just because it’s hard, either emotionally or imaginatively, is a bad idea,” he writes. And when you fail, King suggests that you remain positive. “Optimism is a perfectly legitimate response to failure.” They show that even though at times an author will want to give up and quit, an author should always stay positive and never give up. 

A journey for an author is not always easy, they will at a lot of times want to give up. However, if you want to become a successful author you must, focus on one topic to write about, go through the writing stages and have a rhetorical situation, and prepare yourself for a lot of self doubt. Without authors, a lot of people would lack knowledge. 

Works Cited

Quora Contributor; How Do Writers Figure Out What They Want To Write?

Bitzer, Lloyd; The Rhetorical Situation

Business Insider; 22 Lessons from Stephen King on how to be a great writer 

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